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С See if the travellers have acted sessibly. Support your idea.




a) give me a walking tour every time; you can't beat (hitch-) hiking; need you take so much luggage? b) to get to wild, un­inhabited places; to be hardly able to go on; to be nearly drowned in a swamp; unimaginable hardships; to overcome the obstacles; c) there was a turn in the weather, it was pour­ing; flashes of lightning, rolls of thunder, I wish I were in a railway carriage now!; d) to climb the steepest rocks; to face the danger of...; to get to places where no man's foot has ever stepped; e) to reach the top in safety, to be hardly able to be­lieve one's eyes; you could knock me down with a feather.

STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH

VIII

Different patterns of writing (see "Studies" in Unit One) seldom occur alone, more often they blend into one another, especially in letter writing.

Letteris a specific kind of written composition involving a concrete writer, message and a concrete reader. In many ways it is a free composition. A letter is in a sense, a theme, gov­erned by the same rules of writing that govern every other kind of composition. It must be clear, well organized, coher­ent. And it should be interesting.

But a letter is also governed by certain other laws, or con­ventions of usage, which the letter writer cannot ignore.

These are the parts of a letter: the heading, the inside ad­dress, the greeting, the body of the letter, the complimentary close, the signature.

For each of these parts usage has prescribed certain set forms depending on different types of letters — personal or business letters, informal or formal social notes.

The heading.The parts of a heading, written in the fol­lowing order, are the street, address, the name of a city or town (the name of the state in the U.S.A.), the date, е.g.

Vine Cottage Oxford Road Abingdon-on-Thames 13 May 19...

N о t e: In Great Britain very often the house is not numbered but has a "proper" name, like "Vine Cottage",

The inside address. In a business letter the inside ad­dress is the address of the person written to. In personal let­ter the inside address is usually omitted.

In a business letter it is always correct to use a personal title with the name of the person addressed. A business title should not precede the name. Correct personal titles are: Mr., Mrs., Miss, Dr., Professor, Messrs., е.g.

Dr. Т. С Howard

Superintendent of Schools

The Greeting.The following forms are correct for busi­ness and professional letters:

Gentlemen:                                Ladies:

Dear Sir:                         Dear Madam:

My dear Sir.                   My dear Madam:

Dear Mr. Warren:          Dear Miss Howard:

In personal letters either a colon or a comma may be used after the greeting. A comma is considered less formal. In personal letters the range of greetings is unlimited and in­formal, like "My own Lovey-Dovey" of Judy's "Dear Daddy Long-Legs".

The Body of the Letter. A good letter should be clear, di­rect, coherent, dignified and courteous.

The Complimentary Close. Correct forms for business let­ters are:

Yours truly,                 Yours very truly,                         Very truly yours,

Respectfully yours,    Faithfully yours.                          Sincerely yours,

Yours sincerely, Cordially yours.

The Signature. Some of the conventions should be ob­served: a) neither professional titles, nor academic degress should be used with a signature; b) an unmarried woman should sign herself as Miss Laura Blank, but she may place Miss in parentheses before her name if she feels that it is necessary for proper identification; c) a married woman or a widow signs her own name, not her married name. For ex­ample, Diana Holiday Brown is her own name; Mrs. George Brown is her married name,

Here is an example of a business letter:

Dear Miss Carnaby,

Allow me to enclose a contribution to your very deserv­ing Fund before it is finally wound up.

Yours very truly,

Hercule Poirot.

Assignments:

Go over the letters (see Unit Five) and copy down the samples of the complimentary close.

Write a reply to Judy's letter as if you were the person she wrote her letter to.

Write a letter to a friend sharing the memories of your holiday trip and your feelings at the station on the day of departure.

Write a letter to your dean in which you request permission to stay at your parents' several days more. Give your reason clearly and convincingly.

XV. Film "Mr. Brown's Holiday". Film Segment 8 "Caught in the Rain" (On the Way to Yeovil). a) Watch and listen, b) Do the exercises from the guide to the film.

LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)

1. Listen to the text "Different Means of Travel", mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat it following the model.

2. Listen to the conversation "At the Station", mark the stresses and tunes; repeat after the tape, learn the text by heart.

3. Listen to the dialogue "A Voyage Round Europe", mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat the text following the model and record your variant. Compare your variant with the model and correct your pronunctalion mis­takes.

Write a spelling-translation test: a) translate the phrases into English; b) check them with the key.

5. Listen to some text on the topic "Trawelling", Retell it in class.

Listen to some anecdotes. Put down the word combinations you find useful. Act them out in class (oral and written work).

7. Listen to the poem "From a Railway Carriage". Mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat after the tape. Learn it by heart.

CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS

What do you know about

Christopher Columbus and the history of his discovery? Why wasn't America named in his houour? After whom was it named and why?

Captain Cook, Sir Francis Drake, Roald Amundsen, Mlckloukha-Macklay, the Papanin expedition?

The Mystery of the Atlantis, the Mystery of the Bennudian Triangle, the Mystery of the Easter Isle, the Loch Ness Monster?

UNIT NINE

I. SPEECH PATTERNS

1. They were about Mrs. Burlow's age, so were the attendants.

"I tell you I was moved. So were you, I dare say."

"I wasn't trying to act. 1 really felt." "So did I, my boy," said Le Ros.

My friend guessed what mystery they were talking about. So did I.

She was greatly impressed by Laurence Olivier's acting. So were they.

2. Rose thought him quite funny.

Christine thought this cheque for twenty guineas rather strange.

They always found Le Ros magnetic.

The Trasker girls considered Fabermacher very romantic.

For the first time in a long while Erik thought himself won­derfully free.

3. She saw his face peering through that mask.

Lanny saw Gret Villier sitting at the table motionless and impersonal.

When passing a coffee stall Lanny noticed two white men staring at him.

Jim and his mother heard the blind man approaching the door.

It was easy to imagine Ida performing as the keeper of a second-rate club.

Dave frowned as he saw Dan leaving.

4. Rose wanted him to stop clowning for them.

When Erik finished reading the letter, he couldn't take his eyes off the paper.

Presently Tom picked up a straw and began trying to bal­ance it on his nose.

The sailor began rowing towards the harbour's mouth.

Meanwhile she went on talking in her earnest, convinc­ing voice.



EXERCISES

I. Change the sentences, using the patterns:

Pattern 2: 1. The Murdstones thought that David was disobedient. 2. Everybody found that there was some­thing mysterious about Lady Alroy. 3. We thought that the last scene was quite impressive. 4. I found that the stranger's voice was vaguely familiar to me. 5. Huck Finn couldn't bear his new life at the widow's, in his opinion it was extremely dull.

Pattern 3: 1. Sabina came into the hall, she saw that he was sitting at the telephone. 2. We watched how the seers-off were shuffling from foot to foot. 3. Outside he found that Joe was standing on the platform. 4. She watched how he was waving farewell to his friends. 5. I saw that Bob was playing centre forward.

Pattern 4: 1. Erik started to read the letter again. 2. Soon the porters began to pull luggage along the plat­form. 3. At last Jack finished to write numerous letters of in­troduction. 4. Lev Yashin began to play football when he was a teen-ager. 5. Burton's namesake started to play poker and went broke. 6. The Gadfly pulled a chrysanthemum from the vase and began to pluck off one white petal after another.

II. Think of a situation. Suggest a beginning matching up the end. Use the proper pattern:

Pattern 1: 1. ...; so were ail the passengers. 2. ...; so did we. 3....; so am 1. 4. ...; so can we. 5. ...; so have I. 6. ..;so have you. 7. ...; so was our coach. 8. ...; so did the goal­keeper. 9. ...; so did the opponent. 10. ...; so were our neigh­bours. 11. ...; so was our luggage. 12....; so is she.

Pattern 2: 1. ... vaguely familiar. 2. ... quite sociable. 3. ... rather impressive. 4. ... obedient. 5. ... quite different. 6.... valuable.

Pattern3: 1.... serving another meal. 2. ... making a pause in his story. 3.... rubbing his hands with delight 4.... shrugging her shoulders. 5. ... passing the bread-plate to the man next to him. 6. ...curling her lip and showing her dis­gust for the scene.

Pattern 4: 1. ... stopped breathing. 2. ... started filling in the application form. 3. ... stopped shivering with cold. 4. ... began trembling with fear. 5. ... stopped making notes. 6.... finished reading aloud.

III. Translate the following into English. Use the patterns:

Pattern 1: 1. Они только что проводили своих родствен­ников на станцию. — Мы тоже. 2. В воскресенье мы обедали в гостях. — Мы тоже. 3. Я люблю бифштекс немного недожарен­ным. — Мой брат тоже. 4. Им до смерти наскучил его рассказ. — Нам тоже. 5. Лень непростительна и невежество тоже. 6. Ее сын непослушный. — И мой тоже. 7. Это мое окончательное ре­шение; надеюсь, и ваше тоже, 8. Наши попутчики оказались об­щительными и милыми людьми. — Наши тоже.

Pattern 2: 1. Рикардо встречал Овода раньше и считал его довольно странным (odd). 2. Джуди считала себя совершен­но невежественной во многих вопросах. 3. Когда Джек впервые увидел леди Гвендолен (Gwendolen), он нашел ее совершенно очаровательной. 4. Герствуд (Hurstwood) не считал, что Кэрри достаточно талантлива для сцены, но думал, что сама идея зара­батывать таким образом на жизнь вполне разумна (sensible). 5. Розмэри считала свой поступок благородным и довольно сме­лым (daring). 6. Росс считал, что американцы общительны, ан­гличан он находил негостеприимными. 7. Он Искренне думал, что его работа очень полезна.

Pattern 3: 1. С другого конца стола Эндрю наблюдал, как оперирует Чарльз Айвори. 2. Том и Бекки увидели, что через ма­ленькое отверстие в пещере мерцает (to glimmer) свет. 3. Все, кто стоял на палубе, наблюдали, как садится солнце. 4. Я не могу себе представить, что он занимается спортом. 5. Мы виде­ли, как вы здоровались с ним за руку. 6. Бедняга был страшно удивлен, когда он услышал, что Бертон предлагает ему работу.

Pattern 4: 1. Джемма никогда не переставала думать, что она виновата в смерти Артура. 2. Вскоре люди начали при­ходить группами. 3. Он так и не смог бросить курить и загу­бил свое здоровье. 4. Капитан внезапно прекратил разговор и начал изучать карту. 5. Перестаньте обращаться с ним как с маленьким непослушным мальчиком.

IV. Respond to the following statements and questions, using the patterns:

Pattern 1: 1. Le Ros was delighted to see his old ac­quaintance. 2. Some people feel rather stiff on the platform. What about you? 3. My friends liked the film "Quiet Flows the Don." What about yours? 4. Celia loved Lanny. What about Sarie? 5. Stephen Leacock is a famous humorous writ­er. What about Mark Twain? 6. Some people like things made to order. What about your friend? 7. I'd rather read something by Chekhov, would you? 8. St. Paul's Cathedral is a fine specimen of architecture. Unfortunately I didn't see West­minster Abbey. 9. Martin Eden lived under very hard condi­tions when he was young. What about Jack London himself? 10. I find this exercise extremely easy.

Pattern 2:1. What do you think about Shakespeare's plays? 2. How do you find the screen version of "War and Peace"? 3. In my opinion Ch. Dickens' language is rather difficult. 4. What would you say to a day or two in the mountains? 5. What is your impression of the Tower of Lon­don? 6. What do you think of hitch-hiking as a means of travel? 7. How did you find the last film you saw? 8. What do you think of Le Ros's occupation? 9. Some people like travelling by air. 10. What is your opinion about the English language?

Pattern 3: 1. Have you ever watched the sunrise? 2. Did you have a chance to hear how your friend was recit­ing at concerts? 3. Can you imagine that you are teaching a class of small children? 4. Do you hear any noise? It's com­ing from above, isn't it? 5. What kind of people can you see on the platform and what are they doing there?

Pattern 4:1. When did you start to learn English? 2. Which of your friends have started to learn a second for­eign language? 3. When do they finish to serve meals in your canteen? 4. We shall begin to write the test when ev­erybody comes.










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